Foundations of Multicultural Psychology: Research to Inform Effective Practice

Author(s) Timothy B. Smith & Joseph Trimble

2015, American Psychological Association


Price $70 | Pages 308 | ISBN 978-1-4338-2057-1

Multicultural psychology is a vibrant, emerging discipline with great potential to inform therapists about cultural considerations relevant to mental health. But to what extent are existing assumptions about culturally-informed practice based on research evidence?

This book brings clarity to the current evidence base, shifting the conversation toward greater inclusion of cultural factors in psychotherapy and helping those conversations become more reliant on data than on opinion.

Using meta-analytic methods to summarize what we know, this balanced, comprehensive book is a major step towards establishing a core set of principles for multicultural scholarship and providing answers to the fundamental questions in the field.



  1. Introduction: Multiculturalism in Psychology and Mental Health Services

I. Synthesis of Multicultural Research on Therapist Characteristics

  1. Multicultural Education/Training and Experience: A Meta-Analysis of Surveys and Outcome Studies
  2. Therapist Multicultural Competence: A Meta-Analysis of Client Experiences in Treatment

II. Synthesis of Research on the Experiences of People of Color With Mental Health Services

  1. Mental Health Service Utilization Across Race: A Meta-Analysis of Surveys and Archival Studies
  2. Participation of Clients of Color in Mental Health Services: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Attendance and Treatment Completion/Attrition
  3. Matching Clients With Therapists on the Basis of Race or Ethnicity: A Meta-Analysis of Clients’ Level of Participation in Treatment
  4. Culturally Adapted Mental Health Services: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Client Outcomes
  5. Acculturation Level and Perceptions of Mental Health Services Among People of Color: A Meta-Analysis

III. Synthesis of Research on the Experiences and Well-Being of People of Color

  1. The Association of Received Racism With the Well-Being of People of Color: A Meta-Analytic Review
  2. Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of People of Color: An Updated Meta-Analysis

IV. Foundations for the Future

  1. Philosophical Considerations for the Foundation of Multicultural Psychology
  2. Firming up the Foundation for an Evidenced-Based Multicultural Psychology

Appendix. General Methods of the Meta-Analyses (Chapters 2-10)