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How Distinctive Are Indigenous Ways of Achieving Influence? A Comparative Study of Guanxi, Wasta, Jeitinho, and “Pulling Strings”

First Author: 
Smith, P. B., Huang, H. J., Harb, C., & Torres, C.
Last Page: 
informal influence, cross-cultural, indigenous, guanxi, wasta


Measure Name: 
Influence scenarios
Measure Description: 
Scenarios that describe the influence strategies "guanxi," "wasta," "jeitinho," and "pulling strings"
Construct Name: 
Indigenous social influence strategies
Number of items: 
Response Scale: 
The extent to which each scenario was perceived as representative of the relevant locally named influence process was rated on a single 3-point scale (3 = yes, 2 = not sure, 1 = no).


1 (Brazil). It is closing time in the branch of the bank located on campus when a person walks in, clearly in a hurry. Judging by his clothes, a well-cut suit and a white shirt, it is likely that he is a senior professor in the university. He goes immediately to a cashier point which is closing. The professor seems to know the cashier and asks her to pay in some cash, so that he does not have to join the queue for a cashier who has not yet closed.
2 (China). Ting took the university entry exam this year. As her exam result was not good enough, she was not accepted for her preferred course. Her father and Dr. Zhang, who works in that university, were schoolmates many years ago. Her father asks Dr. Zhang to convince the head of the department to transfer his daughter to the desired course.
3 (Lebanon). Nadine is a student with a poor performance record. She has repeatedly failed courses and she is likely soon to be expelled from university. Her parents, who hold prestigious positions, call the administration to defer the decision to expel her for one more semester.
4 (United Kingdom). John is a student who has a job in a restaurant four evenings a week. His friend David is short of money and needs a job too. He has not worked in a restaurant before. Even though there are other candidates with more experience, David asks John to convince the owner of the restaurant that it would be best if he would to take on his friend as extra cover for the times when the restaurant is very busy on the weekend

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