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Relationships of Parents’ Theories of Intelligence With Children’s Persistence/Learned Helplessness: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

Reference
First Author: 
Jose
Author List APA Format: 
Jose, P. E., & Bellamy, M. A.
Year: 
2012
Volume: 
43
Number: 
6
First Page: 
999
Last Page: 
1018
Keywords: 
learned helplessness, cultural comparisons, parent and child, persistence
Ancillaries: 

None

Measure
Measure Name: 
(1) Parent reports of their own reactions to frustrating events; (2) Parental responses to child frustration
Measure Description: 
(1) recall three frustrating events they had encountered and to consider how they had responded in those situations on 20 items; (2) parental responses to the child's frustration
Construct Name: 
Reaction to frustration
Number of items: 
20; 16
Language(s): 
English, Chinese, Japanese
Response Scale: 
5-point Likert (never felt this way--always felt this way)

(1) “I gave up trying to finish the task because it was impossible” ; “I remained calm and unemotional.”

(2) “Encourage him/her to keep on working until he/she has succeeded” ; “Do what I can to make the task easier.”